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  1. 1. Introduction 21 items
    In this session, we will explore some of the theoretical and historiographical issues that have framed the recent emergence of Food History and studies of food culture more broadly. We will also set these developments within the wider context of global and world histories, as well as comparative and transnational approaches to the study of past societies and cultures.
    1. Required Reading 3 items
      1. Food and History - J. C. Super 01/09/2002

        Article 

      2. The civilizing process: The history of manners - Norbert Elias, Edmund Jephcott 1978

        Book  pp. 80-85; 99-109 The first six pages are a series of examples from 18th/19th Century books examining ‘manners’; the extract then skips to Elias’ commentary on the changes in mealtime behaviours illustrated by these texts

    2. Supplementary Reading 18 items
      1. Everyone eats: understanding food and culture - Eugene N. Anderson c2005

        Book 

      2. “Sustenance, Abundance and the Place of Food in US Histories.” - Bentley Amy

        Chapter 

      3. Cuisine and culture: a history of food and people - Linda Civitello c2008

        Book 

      4. Writing food history: a global perspective - Kyri W. Claflin, Peter Scholliers 2012

        Book 

      5. Food and culture: a reader - Carole Counihan, Penny Van Esterik c2013

        Book 

      6. Food: a history - Felipe Fernández-Armesto 2002

        Book 

      7. Food and love: a cultural history of East and West - Jack Goody 1998

        Book 

      8. Food in global history - Raymond Grew c1999

        Book 

      9. The Cambridge world history of food - Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Corneè Ornelas 2000

        Book 

      10. Hard to swallow: a brief history of food - Richard W. Lacey 1994

        Book 

      11. The raw and the cooked - Claude Lévi-Strauss 1970

        Book 

      12. A history of food - Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, Anthea Bell 1992

        Book 

  2. 2. Food and Globalisation(s) 17 items
    This week, we will examine the relationship between cultural transference, the circulation of foodstuffs and the beginning of ‘globalisation’ in the early modern world. Stories of European adventurers returning from the New World with exotic new foods including the potato are part of the staple diet of popular histories of the age of exploration. But was the Columbian exchange a unique moment? Foods have been circulating around the globe since the neolithic era, and an over-emphasis on the particular significance of changes post-1492 might betray eurocentric assumptions about the development of human history. Food historians and scholars of global history have begun to ask whether there was anything uniquely ‘special’ about European society after all.
    1. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Food globalization in prehistory - Martin Jones, Harriet Hunt, Emma Lightfoot, Diane Lister 12/2011

        Article 

      2. Plus at least two items from Recommended Reading

    2. Recommended Reading 13 items
      1. “The Global Consumption of Hot Beverages, C. 1500 to C. 1900.” - Clarence-Smith W.G.

        Chapter 

      2. Food and globalization: consumption, markets and politics in the modern world - Alexander Nützenadel, Frank Trentmann 2008

        Book 

      3. The Columbian exchange: biological and cultural consequences of 1492 - Alfred W. Crosby, John Robert McNeill, Otto Von Mering 2003

        Book 

      4. A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization - Kenneth F. Kiple, Cambridge Books Online (Online service) 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      5. “The Impact of New World "Food Crops on the Diet and Economy of China and India 1600-1900.” - Sucheta Mazumdar

        Chapter 

      6. Chocolate in Mesoamerica: a cultural history of cacao - Cameron L. McNeil c2006

        Book 

  3. 3. Consumption and Colonialism 15 items
    The uniqueness of the European historical experience tends to be related to the emergence of mercantile empires and, subsequently, industrial capitalism in northern Europe from about the seventeenth century. From roughly 1650-1800, new consumer cultures emerged in Europe that brought the ‘fruits of empire’ into the everyday experience of people of all classes. This week, we will focus on colonial products, with a particular focus on tea and sugar, and explore the ways in which they forged fundamental changes in the social, cultural and biological character of Europe.
    1. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Tea - James Walvin

        Chapter 

      2. Plus at least two items from Recommended Reading

    2. Recommended Reading 11 items
      1. Green gold: the empire of tea - Alan Macfarlane, Iris Macfarlane 2004

        Book 

      2. Tea: addiction, exploitation and empire - Roy Moxham 2003

        Book 

      3. Consumption, food, and taste: culinary antinomies and commodity culture - Alan Warde 1997

        Book 

  4. 4. Technology, food and Industrial society 17 items
    Modern food cultures have been shaped by technologies that have enabled foods to be transported across vast distances and preserved way beyond the usual timespan before spoiling. From the first voyage of Le Frigorifique in the 1870s, the ability to free meat and other products enabled the development of major new agricultural economics in the southern hemisphere, serving the expanding populations of Europe. But refrigeration did not simply facilitate the emergence of global food chains; it was also a catalyst for the re-definition of the idea of ‘freshness’ as a concept. In this session, we will explore the interrelated fields of food history and studies of the social significance of technology. In passing, we will also examine the darker side of industrial foods, food-adulteration scandals and emerging concerns around ‘pure food’.
    1. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Plus at least two items from Recommended Reading

    2. Recommended Reading 13 items
      1. Food nations: selling taste in consumer societies 2002

        Book 

      2. “How the French Learned to Eat Canned Food, 1809 - 1930s.” - Martin Bruegel

        Chapter 

  5. 5. Eating Out 18 items
    This week's session takes as its focus the creation of the modern dining experience and its central institution, the restaurant. As cultural spaces, restaurants shaped a particular strata of food consumption, invariably associated with transformations of elite culture. But 'eating out' as a phenonomen, was neither new, nor was it an experience limited to particular classes. The definition of working-class cultures via particular food routines - pie, fried fish and chips - is but one example of food consumption out of the home beyond urban elites. Two particular aspects of dining will be of interest this week: the significance of eating spaces and their arrangement; and the importance of fashion, trends and 'celebrity' in the shaping of eating experiences.
    1. Required Reading 1 item
    2. Recommended Reading 17 items
      1. Consuming geographies: we are where we eat - David Bell, Gill Valentine 1997

        Book 

      2. “Out to Eat” - Cindy R. Lobel 06/2010

        Article 

      3. Eating Out: Social Differentiation, Consumption and Pleasure - Alan Warde, Lydia Martens, Cambridge Books Online (Online service) 2000 (electronic resource)

        Book 

  6. 6. Food, culture and collective identities 17 items
    This week's topic is concerned with the ways in which particular styles of food culture form an integral part of modern collective identities. Anthropologists have shown that food choices and taboos have long played a critical role in the differentiation of 'in-groups' and 'out-groups', and foodways continued to perform a socially-differentiating function in the modern world. Nations - one of the defining social institutions of modernity - are often characterised in terms of particular 'traditions' that, despite their purportedly deep historical roots are often contemporary inventions. National cuisines are, perhaps, one of the best examples of the creative processes associated with the formation of national identities. Food cultures also provide symbolic capital that can help maintain identities otherwise subsumed and, as such, have been a central feature of ethnic identities.
    1. Required Reading 3 items
      1. Mythologies - Roland Barthes, Annette Lavers 1973

        Book 

      2. Plus a case study, using at least one item from the Recommended reading

    2. Recommended Reading 14 items
      1. How British Is British Food - A. James

        Chapter 

      2. Americanizing Coffee: The Refashioning of a Consumer Culture? - Michelle Craig McDonald, Steven Topik

        Chapter 

      3. Orange empire: California and the fruits of Eden - Douglas Cazaux Sackman c2005

        Book 

      4. The taste of American place: a reader on regional and ethnic foods - Barbara G. Shortridge, James R. Shortridge 1998

        Book 

      5. Golden arches east: McDonald's in East Asia - James L. Watson 2006

        Book 

  7. 7. Domesticity and the modern consumer 19 items
    This session deals with the technological, social and cultural aspects of food consumption in the second half of the twentieth century. From middle-class western 'housewives' whose lives were in part constituted by kitchen technologies, through to the lonely meals of bachelors, what Sherrie Inness has called ‘kitchen culture’ played a key part in shaping gender identities and roles after the Second World War. This same period also saw major developments in agricultural production, food processing, marketing and retail, encapsulated in the shining halls of the new supermarkets, with their aisles of packaged goods.
    1. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Plus at least three items from Recommended reading

    2. Recommended Reading 15 items
      1. Campbell's Soup and the Long Shelf Life of Traditional Gender Roles - Katharine Parkin

        Chapter 

      2. Just desserts: women and food - Sally Cline 1990

        Book 

      3. Processed Foods from Scratch: Cooking for a Family in the 1950s - Erika Endrijonas

        Chapter 

      4. Slice of life: the British way of eating since 1945 - Christina Hardyment 1997

        Book 

      5. Food is love: food advertising and gender roles in modern America - Katherine J. Parkin 2006

        Book 

      6. Feeding the family: the social organization of caring as gendered work - Marjorie L. DeVault 1991

        Book 

      7. She Also Cooks: Gender, Domesticity, and Public Life in Oakland, California, 1957-1959 - Jessica Weiss

        Chapter 

      8. Cooking on Their Own: Cuisines of Manly Men - Richard Wilk, Persephone Hintlian 09/03/2005

        Article 

      9. A theory of shopping - Daniel Miller 1998

        Book 

  8. 8. Nutrition and Health 17 items
    This session deals with the interaction between food culture, the sociology of eating and a history of the science of nutrition. We will examine the social and political dimensions of the ‘healthy diet’ and its relationship to the emergence of the development state - both in western industrialised economies and in a colonial setting.
    1. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Plus at least two items from Recommended reading

    2. Recommended Reading 13 items
      1. Conflict of Concepts in Early Vitamin Studies - Aaron J. Ihde and Stanley L. Becker 1971

        Article 

      2. Comfort Foods: An Exploratory Journey Into The Social and Emotional Significance of Food - Julie L. Locher, William C. Yoels, Donna Maurer, Jillian van Ells 10/2005

        Article 

  9. 9. Food counter-cultures 27 items
    In the late-twentieth century, food became a focus for a politics shaped by the counter-cultures of the 1960s. Advocates for reform of consumer society and alternative lifestyles began to map out ways of thinking about dietary needs and the political economies of global food production. ‘Slow food’, ‘localism’ and ‘fair trade’ became rhetorical markers of a new set of movements that sought to critique consumer capitalism and globalisation. This week’s session will focus on these movements, and will seek to identify some of the longer-term historical developments that shaped them
    1. Required Reading 1 item
      1. At least five items from Recommended reading

         

    2. Recommended Reading 26 items
      1. The slow food story: politics and pleasure - Geoff Andrews c2008

        Book 

      2. Colony in a Cup - Gregory Dicum 05/2003

        Article 

      3. Fields of Obligation - Catherine S. Dolan 11/2005

        Article 

      4. Sacred cow, mad cow: a history of food fears - Madeleine Ferrières 2005

        Book 

      5. Food ethics - T. B. Mepham 1996

        Book 

      6. From field to fork: food ethics for everyone - Paul B. Thompson, Oxford Scholarship Online (Online service) 2015

        Book 

      7. Ethics of animal use - Peter Sandøe, Stine B. Christiansen 2008

        Book 

      8. In defense of animals: the second wave - Peter Singer 2006 [i.e. 2005

        Book 

      9. Before Fair Trade: Empire, Free Trade and the Moral Economies of Food in the Modern World - Frank Trentmann

        Chapter 

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