1. The Early Middle Ages to 1300 - Richard L. Crocker, David Hiley 1990

    Book  pp.81-91, Angles.

  2. Sub-unit 1: Music and Manuscripts in Medieval Iberia 70 items
    1. I advise you to do the "essential reading" for all three classes before the first class starts. That way, you can have a tentative sense of which essay title you are likely to want to answer, and you can get going on the reading before the lectures start. That way, you'll get the most out of the lectures, and be able to put what you've learned into good shape for the essay. Remember to note down where you find information (including the page number), ready to make footnotes in your essay. Of course it's fine to change your mind as the sub-unit progresses, but you're best to do that from a position of already having got your head around plenty of the reading list.


    2. Week 2: The Léon Antiphoner 31 items
      1. Essential reading before the class 2 items
        1. Mozarabic chant - Don M. Randel, Nils Nadeau

          Article Essential NB you do NOT need to make detailed notes and memorize all the information here – just try to get your head around as much of it as possible. Make a few notes about the chant genres of the office, because you’ll be invited to identify them during the class. And be ready to ask questions about the liturgical structures because everyone else will be just as confused as you are. Available online

        2. Music and meaning in old Hispanic lenten chants: Psalmi, Threni and the Easter Vigil Canticles - Emma Hornby, Rebecca Maloy 2013

          Book Essential Do NOT try to read all of this! Just skim read the introduction. There's an electronic copy on the library website

      2. Reading after the class, to help you prepare for the essay 29 items
        1. NB most of the literature on this topic is in Spanish or French. Here I've just included English language bibliography. If you read Spanish or French and want MORE, just ask!


          Don't forget that, if I've pointed you at one essay in a book, you might find other essays in the book interesting (you will only find out if you actually look at the book in the library rather than just downloading from EReserves)


          NB NB this is more reading than you can possibly manage. It is meant to give you some choice – some of what you read will really interest you, and other bits will leave you cold, and that's ok. We would expect to see evidence in your essay that you've read and understood 8-12 of the items on the reading list, and that you are using them to help you answer the question. Keep careful track of when people were writing – think about the different amounts that people knew in the 1920s or the 1960s or the 2010s, say.


        2. Mozarabic chant - Higini Anglès

          Chapter  THere's a copy in my office if you're having trouble getting hold of this

        3. Mozarabic preces in Ars Nova notation: a new fourteenth-century fragment discovered in Spain - DAVID CATALUNYA, CARMEN JULIA GUTIÉRREZ 10/2013

          Article  You can find this online

        4.  There are several important articles in English in El canto mozárabe y su entornoEstudios sobre la música de la liturgia viejo hispánica, ed. Ismael Fernández de la Cuesta, Rosario Álvarez Martínez and Ana Llorens Martín (Madrid 2013). The library doesn't own it, but I have a copy in my office. Do ask to have a look at it if you are interested.

        5. Ferreira, Manuel Pedro, 'Three Fragments from Lamego', Revista de Musicología 16 (1993), 457-76


        6. Ferreira, Manuel Pedro, 'Notation and Psalmody: A Southwestern Connection?', in László Dobszay (ed.), Cantus Planus: Papers Read at the 12th Meeting, Lillafüred, Hungary, 2004, August 23-28  (Budapest, 2006), 621-39. In my office – ask to borrow it.

        7. Music and Meaning in Old Hispanic Lenten Chants - Emma HornbyRebecca Maloy

          Book  have a go at some of the rest of it, but don’t for goodness sake try to read it cover to cover. Bear in mind that it represents several years’ work by two people

        8. Melodic dialects in Old Hispanic chant - EMMA HORNBY, REBECCA MALOY 04/2016

          Article  Seriously hard core.

        9. The Early Middle Ages to 1300 - Richard L. Crocker, David Hiley 1990

          Book  pp.101-110, Levy.

        10. Randel, Don M., 'Responsorial Psalmody in the Mozarabic Rite', Études grégoriennes 10 (1989), 87-116.


          Article  Not about Old Hispanic chant, but it might help you get your head around what they are trying to do with the notation.

        12. Hispania vetus: musical-liturgical manuscripts from Visigothic origins to the Franco-Roman transition (9th-12th centuries) - Susana Zapke, Maria José Azevedo Santos, BBVA (Firm). Fundación c2007

          Book  The image quality will be poor enough on google books to make you weep. And you’ll only get to see half the pages you want (top tip – read what you can, then close your internet browser and open it again to get a different selection of pages). I have a hard copy of the book. You are welcome to email me and ask to borrow it (or pop in in my office hour) – you will not be allowed to remove it from the building, since a replacement would cost me £70. There is also a pdf on Blackboard. The most important article is the one by Díaz y Díaz; you might also find Zapke’s “Notation Systems” article interesting.

    3. Week 3: The Codex Calixtinus 14 items
      1. In this class, I introduce you to one of the most famous books from medieval Spain – the Codex Calixtinus, famously stolen (and later recovered) a few years ago. This book vividly represents the practices associated with medieval pilgrimage, as well as being one of a very few witnesses to European polyphonic music in the 12th century. How representative is the polyphonic music contained within it? 

      2. Essential reading before the lecture 3 items
        1. The Christian West and its singers: the first thousand years - Christopher Page 2010


        2. (the bit on Santiago de Compostela, Biblioteca de la Catedral Metropolitana, s.s., not the whole article; also look up the names of the bishops supposed to have composed songs contained in the book)

        3. El Códice Calixtino y la música de su tiempo: actas del simposio organizado por la Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza en A Coruña y Santiago de Compostela, 20-23 de septiembre de 1999 - José López-Calo, Carlos Villanueva, Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza 2001

          Book  Read one essay in this book, and be prepared to give a brief verbal summary and evaluation of it in the class. There are several relevant articles in English in here; it is confined to the library so everyone can get at it.

      3. Further reading for the essay 10 items
        1. “Early Polyphony” - Fuller Sarah


        2. A Note on Jacobus - Christopher Hohler 1972


        3. The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James - Colloquium on The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James 1992

          Book  Several interesting articles; the one by Hendrik van der Werf is most obviously relevant, and the one by Michel Huglo too, if you read French

        4. There's a whole big debate about how to edit and perform and understand this sort of music. A good place to start might be near the end of the conversation: try Theodore Karp, 'Evaluating Performances and Editions of Aquitanian Polyphony', Acta Musicologica, 71 (1999), pp. 19-49 [IT'S ONLINE ON JSTOR], and work your way backwards through the footnotes. His book The Polyphony of St Martial (1993) is worth browsing briefly, and then read lots of reviews of it on JSTOR to get a sense of how complex the arguments are in this area! [it was reviewed by Richard Crocker in Plainsong and Medieval Music 3 (1994), 57-101; W. Summers in Music and Letters 74 (1993), 566-8; Sarah Fuller in Speculum 69 (1994), 1188-90; Nick Sandon in Early Music 21 (1993), 639-41. [in fact, if you look for "Codex Calixtinus" on JSTOR, you'll find you hit a rich seam of Ted Karp arguing with Leo Treitler, Crocker, Old Uncle Tom Cobley and all]

        5. The oldest extant part music and the origin of western polyphony - Hendrik van der Werf 1993

          Book  look at reviews on JSTOR

        6. Then look at some editions of this sort of polyphony, and listen to some recordings, and draw your own conclusions.

    4. Week 4: The Cantigas de Santa Maria 24 items
      1. The cantigas de Santa Maria are a series (a very long series – over 400!) songs in honour of the Virgin Mary composed and recorded in writing at the court of King Alfonso X ("the Wise") of Castile. Long attributed, at least in part, to the King himself these songs represent one of the richest examples of the genre, with its heavy influence of Arabic and Jewish song that reflect the cultural cross-fertilization happening in Spain in this period. The manuscripts produced to preserve these songs are also lavish, containing not only full text and music, but also full-page illustrations of the songs' contents. Because so many of the songs are little stories about miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary, they also represent a fascinating window onto society in 13th century Spain. We will be looking at these multimedia manuscripts and discussing the historical context in which they were produced and what we can learn from them about the musical culture of Alfonso's court. 

      2. Essential reading before the lecture 5 items
        1. Songs of Holy Mary of Alfonso X, the Wise: a translation of the Cantigas de Santa María - Kathleen Kulp-Hill, Connie L. Scarborough, Alfonso 2000


        2. Alfonso X, the learned: Cantigas de Santa Maria : an anthology - Alfonso, Modern Humanities Research Association 2015


        3. If you prefer it in the original Galician-Portuguese (!), they are all here: This database has details of the full contents of each manuscript, the stories in them, the sources and bibliography for each one.

        4. Cantigas', 'Alfonso', 'Martin Codax', 'Zajal' in New Grove Online


          Here is one of the manuscripts online:

          some colour images here

      3. Further reading for the essay 17 items
        1. La música de las Cantigas de Santa María - Higinio Anglés, Alfonso, Biblioteca Central de Barcelona 1943-1964


        2. Manuel Pedro Ferreira has written many articles on the music of the Cantigas (all on his page: - under 'papers'), for example: 

          -  "Rhythmic paradigms in the Cantigas de Santa Maria: French versus Arabic precedent", Plainsong and Medieval Music, 24/1 (2015), pp. 1-24.

          -   'Rondeau and virelai: the music of Andalus and the Cantigas de Santa Maria', Plainsong and Medieval Music 13 (2004), 127-140 .

          -  'Andalusian Music and the Cantigas de Santa Maria' in Cobras e son : papers on the text, music, and manuscripts of the 'Cantigas de Santa Maria' (Oxford : Legenda, 2000), pp. 246-57.

          -  'The layout of the Cantigas: A musicological overview' in Galician Review [University of Birmingham] 2 (1998), pp. 47-61

          -  'Iberian Monophony (An Introduction)' in Ross W. Duffin (ed.), A Performer's Guide to Medieval Music, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000, pp. 144-57

          -  Here's his latest one, published this summer. Definitely read it!

        3. The learned king: the reign of Alfonso X of Castile - Joseph F. O'Callaghan c1993


        4. Medieval woman's song: cross-cultural approaches - Anne L. Klinck, Ann Marie Rasmussen c2002

          Book  article by Cohen in particular

        5. The Early Middle Ages to 1300 - Richard L. Crocker, David Hiley 1990

          Book  David Hiley and Richard Crocker (eds.), New Oxford History of Music volume 2, 442-51

        6. Leo Plenckers, 'The Cantigas de Santa Maria and the Moorish Muwassh: Another way of comparing their musical structures', Revista de Musicologia 16 (1993), 354-7* [I didn't understand a word of this till I'd read Ferreira]

        7. Cárdenas, Anthony J. "Alfonso X, St James and the Virgin", Research Paper Series 50, Albuquerque, NM, Latin American Institute (Full text online via library)

        8. Cantigas de Santa Maria for Singers

          Website  this has transcriptions of all the music – play around with it to get notation you understand

      4. Lots more bibliography on:


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